"Sadly, Katy and I are ending our marriage," Brand said Friday. "I'll always adore her and I know we'll remain friends."
Brand, 36, offered no other details, but in papers filed Friday in Los Angeles Superior Court, he cited irreconcilable differences.
He and the 27-year-old pop singer were married in October 2010 at a resort inside a tiger reserve in India, and their mutual affection had become a rather sweet feature of the celebrity circuit.
The couple announced their engagement in January 2010 after meeting at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, where Brand hosted and she performed.
The comedian, who once struggled with substance abuse and sex addiction, was effusive about his bride while promoting projects earlier this year, saying marrying Perry has "given me much more strength in what I do."
"For a long while, what I do professionally was all that mattered to me really," he said in March. "Now I think, well, whatever I do, I'll just go back to her, and that's incredibly comforting."
Perry praised her husband backstage at the 2011 VMAs in August, where she won three awards and he offered a tribute to Amy Winehouse.
"I'm proud of him, whatever comes out of his mouth, and sometimes it's very colorful, right?" Perry said of Brand. "That's why I married him, because he's smart and I learn a lot."
Attorneys for Perry did not respond Friday to calls seeking comment.
The Internet had been abuzz recently with rumors about possible trouble for the couple after they were seen without their wedding rings.
Both Brand and Perry were absent Friday from Twitter, where they often shared kind words for each other.
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