It was Mardi Gras 2011, and Kirk and Holly Groh were stationed in their family's traditional viewing spot downtown, where they had watched so many parades roll by in years past.
This time, they kept thinking what a waste it was.
Their hometown had never seemed more environmentally fragile. Hurricane Katrina's floodwaters had claimed their house in August 2005. Five years later, they watched their local fishmongers worry their way through the BP oil spill.
But then the undersea gusher was capped, and a few months later New Orleans was once again inundated with millions of pounds of Chinese-made, petroleum-based plastic beads -- the spoils of Mardi Gras.
"Nothing had changed," Holly said. "We were astonished, and just kind of dumbfounded."
The Grohs have since flung themselves into one of the nation's more esoteric -- and, some would argue, futile -- environmental crusades: Bringing a little conservationist restraint to the city's pre-Lenten orgy of excess, which this year falls on Feb. 21.
The movement, for now, is modest, and its concerns are myriad, but most of the effort has focused on the estimated 25 million pounds of plastic beads that make their way to the city every year.
The beads, of course, are central to the ritualized gift exchanges unique to Mardi Gras season, a multi-day series of parties and parades that brings an estimated million revelers to the streets for what is sometimes called "the Greatest Free Show on Earth." Members of Mardi Gras "krewes," the private social organizations that stage the parades, spend thousands to purchase the shiny baubles by the gross at local Carnival-themed superstores, then fling them to crowds who beg for them with the exclamation, "Throw me something, mister!"
In the touristy French Quarter, boozy packs of males stagger with beads stockpiled on their necks in the manner of Mr. T, infamously offering to bestow their gaudier strands on women who agree to flash their bare breasts.
But after the exchange is made, the beads' value plummets. The parade-goers -- among them the sobered-up tourists returning home -- are left, in the end, with strands of junk.
Traditional recycling centers cannot process the beads. However, a few nonprofits in recent years have refined programs that collect, bundle and resell them. And this year, an unprecedented crop of initiatives has sprung up to help feed the recycled bead market, with most of the ideas as idiosyncratic as the city itself.
The Arc of Greater New Orleans, a nonprofit that employs its mentally challenged clients in a bead-recycling program, introduced a trailer this season that will bring up the rear at some parades, encouraging revelers to throw back the trinkets they just caught with a slogan well-known to south Louisiana fishermen: "Catch and release."
In October, a local environmental group called LifeCity held a contest it dubbed "Green the Gras." The winning entrant proposed (but has not yet implemented) a system that would encourage the exchange of beads for tokens from businesses. The tokens could be used for a luxury most coveted on Mardi Gras day: the use of a clean bathroom.
On Feb. 11, the group the Grohs founded, Verdi Gras, tested a first-ever recycling pilot program with the blessing of city government, setting out bead collection bins along the route for the Krewe of Pontchartrain.
Like-minded revelers, about 130 of whom attended a Verdi Gras ball in January, imagine a future Carnival where more "throws" might be locally produced, handmade objets d'art. Kirk Groh, a 48-year-old attorney, noted that the Krewe of Zulu's hand-painted coconuts are always among Mardi Gras' most coveted throws.
For these new activists, the deluge of beads is emblematic of regional attitudes about the environment that they wish to change.
"It's a cultural thing," Ryan Berni, a spokesman for Mayor Mitch Landrieu said. "We have a hard enough time convincing people to put their trash in the can."
Mardi Gras, which translates as "Fat Tuesday," refers to both the day before Lent, the Christian season of penitence, and, in New Orleans, the festive season that begins 12 days after Christmas, with private, masked balls and public parades.
The celebration was imported to Louisiana by French settlers in the late 1600s. The city's official tourism website traces the throwing of baubles to 1871, when a float rider masking as Santa Claus gave out gifts from float No. 24 during the Twelfth Night Revelers parade. But Schindler said the practice began in earnest in the 1920s, when some riders began regularly arming themselves with small satchels full of trinkets.
The beads were originally made of glass, and imported from the former Czechoslovakia, which had a centuries-old bead-making industry. Cheaper beads arrived from Japan and Hong Kong in the 1960s.
The beads produced in mainland China began pouring into the city in the early 1980s.
There are signs bead recycling is growing in popularity. At Arc, the nonprofit for the disabled, recycling coordinator Margie Perez said her group sold 100,000 pounds of recycled beads last year -- about twice the amount they sold four years earlier.
Jimmy O'Flynn, 39, a rider in the Krewe of Endymion, sauntered into the Arc warehouse on a recent afternoon. He said he was buying beads to support the Arc program, but he wasn't too worried about them ending up in the landfill. In his experience, they never made it that far.
O'Flynn said he learned this while doing demolition work after Katrina. The beads would come spilling out of ruined attics, like memories of good times long past.
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