Elsewhere in the country, thousands staged anti-government protests in mosques and cemeteries following special prayers marking Eid al-Fitr, the three-day holiday that ends the holy fasting month of Ramadan. Pious Muslims traditionally visit graves and recite prayers for the dead on the holiday.
Amateur video posted by activists on the Internet show a large group of worshippers in a mosque at al-Zahera district in Damascus shouting: "There is no God but Allah" and "Assad is the enemy of God," while clapping their hands over their heads.
"May God protect the Free Syrian Army!" they also cried, referring to the main rebel group fighting to topple Assad.
Ramadan in Syria was particularly deadly this year as the civil war reached the two largest cities, Damascus and Aleppo. The Syrian regime has suffered a series of setbacks over the past month that point to a loosening of its grip on the country.
The July 18 rebel bombing of the state-security headquarters in the capital was a major blow to Assad. His brother-in-law was among the four killed officials.
There has also been a steady stream of high-level defections by government officials, diplomats and generals, though Assad's inner circle and military have largely kept their cohesive stance behind him. And the regime has been unable to fully subdue rebel challenges in the two major cities, Damascus and Aleppo.
Syrian state TV broadcast footage showing Assad praying at the city's Rihab al-Hamad mosque, a relatively small mosque in al-Muhajireen district only few hundred meters (yards) from the presidential palace.
Residents of Damascus said security forces blocked streets and encircled several central mosques in the capital from Saturday evening, possibly to confuse people about where Assad would attend the traditional holiday prayers.
Unlike previous years, Assad was not shown arriving or leaving in his convoy. He was pictured seated cross-legged on the mosque floor, wearing a suit and tie, and later, standing and briefly shaking hands with officials before leaving.
"All this points to a state of confusion and lack of confidence at the leadership level," said Syria-based activist Mohammad Saeed. "It shows they don't have security in the capital under control."
Assad's appearance comes amid much speculation on the whereabouts of Vice President Farouk al-Sharaa, who was said by some members of the Free Syrian Army to have defected to the opposition. On Saturday, his office denied the reports. Al-Sharaa was not shown in the footage at the mosque with Assad, but observers said the two rarely attend the same functions for security reasons.
The last time Assad appeared in public was on July 4 when he gave a speech in parliament.
Since then, there has been a sharp escalation in the civil war with almost daily fighting in some districts of the capital.
As it battles for survival against the rebels, the regime has increasingly resorted to the use of airstrikes, particularly in the north where rebels have seized large swathes of territory.
Abdelbaset Sieda, president of the Syrian National Council opposition group, reiterated his call for international powers to militarily enforce a no-fly zone that would prevent Syrian regime aircraft being used against rebels as well as safe corridors to protect civilians.
"Failing that, the entire region is headed toward a future open to all kinds of catastrophic possibilities," the Sweden-based Sieda said in a speech addressing the Syrian people for Eid al-Fitr. A video of the speech was posted on YouTube.
The Syrian opposition has been calling for a no-fly zone over parts of Syria for months. Russia, one of Syria's most powerful international backers, rejects the idea.
Syrians also protested in many other parts of the country, demanding freedom and the ouster of the regime.
Opposition groups reported fierce artillery shelling that targeted a main cemetery in the rebel-held town of Rastan, north of the central city of Homs. Activists said residents were visiting graves of dead relatives at the time, but the reports could not be independently confirmed.
The British-based activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said one woman was killed in the shelling of Rastan.
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