Jacob Trouba scored a tying, power-play goal on a slap shot from the blue line midway through the second period, but Vladimir Tkachyov scored from close range four minutes into the third.
Russia withstood a late two-man advantage for the Americans to hold on for the win. Albert Yarullin gave Russia an early lead with a slap shot from the left circle 2:42 into the first period.
U.S. goalie John Gibson had 28 saves, and stopped Nikolay Kucherov from extending the lead by blocking his one-on-one effort with 2:44 left to play.
The Americans then had a late power play and pulled Gibson to play 6-on-4, but couldn't force the match into overtime.
Earlier, Ryan Strome scored two goals to help Canada beat Slovakia 6-3.
Goals in the first period from Marko Dano and Tomas Mikus put Slovakia 2-0 ahead before Strome narrowed the gap at 22:16. Dano restored the two-goal margin on a power play midway through the second period.
But Morgan Rielly, Ty Rattia and Mark Schiefele put Canada 4-3 ahead after 40 minutes. Ryan Nugent-Hopkins and Strome then scored a goal each early in the third period to seal Canada's second victory after a 9-3 win over Germany in the Group B opener on Wednesday.
Canada leads Group B with six points. Russia is second, a point behind. The United States has three points after two games while Slovakia has one point and Germany has lost both its matches.
Also Friday, the Czech Republic scored its first victory at the event, beating Finland 2-1 on first-period goals by Marek Hrbas and Tomas Hyka.
Teuvo Teravainen scored the only goal for Finland 2:29 into the second period and Patrik Bartosak made 29 saves for the Czechs to secure the victory. Joonas Korpisalo had 17 saves for Finland.
Sweden took the lead in Group A by rallying to beat Switzerland 3-2 on Victor Rask's winner in a penalty shootout.
Eliot Antonietti put Switzerland ahead at 14:04, but Sebastien Collberg equalized on a power play at 30:32 before Mike Kunzle scored his third goal at the event to restore Switzerland's lead on another power play. Emmil Djuse leveled at 2-2 at 46:14 to send the match into overtime.
Both teams had their chances in overtime but failed to convert them. In the penalty shootout, Rask sent what proved to be the winner past Melvin Nyffeler, who made 39 saves. Joel Lassinantti, who had 29 saves, then denied Lino Martschini's effort.
Sweden has five points from two games, a point more than second-place Switzerland. Finland and the Czech Republic have three points each, while Latvia has lost both its matches.
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