On Jan. 24, 2003, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security officially opened as its head, Tom Ridge, was sworn in. (Creation of the new Cabinet agency was the largest government reorganization in more than 50 years, a response to the Sept. 11 attacks and the threat of further terror.)
On this date:
In 1848, James Marshall discovered a gold nugget at Sutter's Mill in northern California, a discovery that led to the gold rush of '49.
In 1908, the Boy Scouts movement began in England under the aegis of Robert Baden-Powell.
In 1942, the Roberts Commission placed much of the blame for America's lack of preparedness for Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on Rear Adm. Husband Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter Short, the Navy and Army commanders.
In 1961, a U.S. Air Force B-52 crashed near Goldsboro, N.C., dropping its payload of two nuclear bombs, neither of which went off; three crew members were killed.
In 1989, confessed serial killer Theodore Bundy was executed in Florida's electric chair.
In 1993, retired Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall died in Bethesda, Md., at age 84.
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