Askia Booker scored 13 points, including eight straight late in the second half after the Cardinal had trimmed an 18-point deficit to eight.
Roberson, who also had 20 boards against Fresno State last month, nearly had his eighth double-double of the season by halftime as the Buffs took a 44-29 lead into the locker room.
Colorado (13-6, 3-4 Pac-12) hadn't beaten the Cardinal (11-8, 2-4) since Dec. 23, 1990, in Boulder, losing five straight in the series.
Chasson Randle had 15 points for Stanford. The Cardinal's leading rebounder and third-leading scorer, Josh Huestis, was plagued by foul trouble and was held to six points and six boards in 19 minutes.
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