On August 5, 1953, Operation Big Switch began as remaining prisoners taken during the Korean War were exchanged at Panmunjom.
On this date:
In 1864, during the Civil War, Union Adm. David G. Farragut led his fleet to victory in the Battle of Mobile Bay, Ala.
In 1884, the cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty's pedestal was laid on Bedloe's Island in New York Harbor.
In 1912, the Progressive Party, also known as the "Bull Moose Party," convened in Chicago. (The party was formed by former President Theodore Roosevelt following a split in the Republican Party.)
In 1921, a baseball game was broadcast for the first time as KDKA radio announcer Harold Arlin described the action between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies from Forbes Field. (The Pirates won, 8-5.)
In 1924, the comic strip "Little Orphan Annie" by Harold Gray made its debut.
In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Labor Board, which was later replaced with the National Labor Relations Board.
In 1936, Jesse Owens of the United States won the 200-meter dash at the Berlin Olympics, collecting the third of his four gold medals.
In 1953, the movie "From Here to Eternity" had its world premiere in New York.
In 1962, actress Marilyn Monroe, 36, was found dead in her Los Angeles home; her death was ruled a probable suicide from "acute barbiturate poisoning." South African anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela was arrested; it was the beginning of 27 years of imprisonment.
In 1963, the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union signed a treaty in Moscow banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in space and underwater.
In 1969, the U.S. space probe Mariner 7 flew by Mars, sending back photographs and scientific data.
In 1981, the federal government began firing air traffic controllers who had gone out on strike.
Ten years ago: Episcopal leaders in Minneapolis voted to approve the election of the Reverend V. Gene Robinson, an openly gay clergyman, as bishop of the Diocese of New Hampshire. A car bombing at the Marriott hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia, killed 12 people.
Five years ago: President George W. Bush arrived in South Korea to begin a three-country Asia tour. Seven firefighters and two pilots were killed when their helicopter crashed on takeoff while ferrying the crew members from fire lines in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest in Northern California. Jose Medellin, a Mexican-born condemned killer, was executed by the state of Texas for his part in the gang rape and murder of two teenage girls, Elizabeth Pena and Jennifer Ertman, in 1993.
One year ago: A gunman opened fire and killed six people at a Sikh temple near Milwaukee before he was killed in an exchange of gunfire with one of the first officers to respond. The robotic explorer Curiosity blazed through the pink skies of Mars, steering itself to a gentle landing inside a giant crater. Jamaica's Usain Bolt pulled away from the pack and crossed the finish line to claim consecutive gold medals in the marquee track and field event at the Summer Games in London. Britain's Andy Murray cruised past Roger Federer 6-2, 6-1, 6-4 in the men's tennis singles final. Serena and Venus Williams won the women's doubles title, beating Andrea Hlavackova and Lucie Hradecka of the Czech Republic 6-4, 6-4. McKayla Maroney took silver in the women's vault; Sandra Izbasa of Romania won the gold.
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