Ethnic eateries: These places usually offer the cheapest hot meals in town.
Throughout wealthy northern Europe, immigrant communities labor at subsistence wages. Rather than eat bland and pricey local food, they (along with savvy residents and travelers) go cheap and spicy at simple diners, delis and take-away stands serving Middle Eastern, Pakistani and Asian food.
Cafeterias: "Self-service" is an international word. You'll find self-service restaurants in big cities everywhere, offering low-price, low-risk, low-stress, what-you-see-is-what-you-get meals.
A sure value for your euro is a department-store cafeteria. These places are designed for the shopper who has a sharp eye for a good value.
At a salad bar, grab a plate and stack it like the locals do -- high. Hungry sightseers also appreciate the handy, moderately priced cafeterias found in larger museums.
Institution-affiliated eateries: If your wallet is as empty as your stomach, find a cheap, humble cafeteria that's associated with (and subsidized by) a local institution -- such as a university, city hall, church, hospital, charity, senior center, fire station, union of gondoliers, retired fishermen's club, and so on. (These are sometimes called "mensas.")
Profits take a back seat to providing good food at a good price -- and many of these eateries welcome the public to pull up a chair.
Options range from a semi-swanky City Hall cafeteria in Oslo, to student canteens in university towns (such as Salzburg, Austria), to Poland's dreary-looking but cheap "milk bars."
Bakeries and sandwich shops: Bakeries are a good place to pick up basic sandwiches, tiny pizzas, or something equally cheap and fast but with more of a regional flavor, such as savory pasties in England or a "croque-monsieur" sandwich in France.
Chains that sell good, healthful sandwiches, salads, and pastries are Britain's Pret a Manger, Norway's Deli de Luca and Spain's Pans and Company.
Local delilike shops are popular in many parts of Europe; try a "traiteur" in France or a "rosticceria" in Italy.
The business-lunch crowd invariably knows the best place for an affordable fill-the-tank bite.
McEurope: Fast-food restaurants are everywhere. The busiest and biggest McDonald's in the world are in Paris, Rome and Moscow.
American fast food has gone global. You'll find KFC and Subway in every language, but at least you know exactly what you're getting, and it's fast.
They're also kid-friendly and satisfy the need for a cheap salad bar and a tall orange juice. They've grabbed prime bits of real estate in every big European city, providing a cheap seat (with no cover charge) and an opportunity to savor a low-class paper cup of coffee while enjoying high-class people-watching. Many offer free Wi-Fi as well.
Street food: Every country has a cheap specialty that's sold at take-out stands or shops, where you can grab a filling bite on the go: French "creperies," Greek souvlaki stands, Danish "polse" (sausage) vendors, Italian "pizza rustica" take-out shops, Dutch herring carts, British fish-and-chip shops and Turkish-style kebab and falafel kiosks.
Of all these options, the ubiquitous kebab stand is my favorite. The best ones have a busy energy, and a single large kebab wrapped in wonderful pita bread can feed two hungry travelers for $5.
One final tip: Don't let the price of a meal determine your agenda. If you're dreaming of going to Ireland, but the food is cheaper in Portugal, your best value is still Ireland -- it's just essential that you eat smart and travel smart.
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