On September 9, 1513, English forces defeated Scottish invaders in the Battle of Flodden Field; more than 15,000 men were believed killed, including the King of Scots, James IV.
On this date:
In 1543, Mary Stuart was crowned Queen of Scots at Stirling Castle, nine months after she was born.
In 1776, the second Continental Congress made the term "United States" official, replacing "United Colonies."
In 1850, California became the 31st state of the union.
In 1919, some 1,100 members of Boston's 1,500-man police force went on strike. (The strike was broken by Massachusetts Gov. Calvin Coolidge with replacement officers.)
In 1926, the National Broadcasting Co. (NBC) was incorporated by the Radio Corp. of America.
In 1932, the steamboat Observation exploded in New York's East River, killing 72 people.
In 1943, Allied forces landed at Salerno and Taranto during World War II.
In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
In 1971, prisoners seized control of the maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, N.Y., beginning a siege that ended up claiming 43 lives.
In 1976, Communist Chinese leader Mao Zedong died in Beijing at age 82.
In 1986, Frank Reed, director of a private school in Lebanon, was taken hostage; he was released 44 months later.
In 1997, Sinn Fein (shin fayn), the IRA's political ally, formally renounced violence as it took its place in talks on Northern Ireland's future. Actor Burgess Meredith died in Malibu, Calif., at age 89.
Ten years ago: The Boston Roman Catholic Archdiocese agreed to pay $85 million to 552 people to settle clergy sex abuse cases. France's leading undertaker estimated the country's death toll from a summer heat wave at 15,000. Twin Palestinian suicide bombings killed 16 Israelis. Nuclear scientist Edward Teller died at age 95.
Five years ago: President George W. Bush announced he would keep U.S. force strength in Iraq largely intact until the next administration, drawing rebukes from Democrats who wanted the war ended and a bigger boost of troops in troubled Afghanistan. Asif Ali Zardari, the widower of assassinated former Pakistani leader Benazir Bhutto, took office as Pakistan's president.
One year ago: Iraq sentenced fugitive Sunni Vice President Tariq al-Hashemi to death on charges he'd masterminded death squads against rivals in a trial that fueled sectarian tensions in the country. The same day, insurgents carried out a series of bombings and shootings across Iraq that killed at least 92 people. Two points from defeat, Serena Williams regained her composure and her game to come back to beat Victoria Azarenka, 6-2, 2-6, 7-5, for her fourth U.S. Open championship. Shannon Eastin became the first woman to officiate an NFL regular-season game, serving as a line judge in the St. Louis Rams-Detroit Lions game. (Detroit beat St. Louis 27-23.)
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