The website protected users with an encryption technique called "onion routing," which is designed to make it "practically impossible to physically locate the computers hosting or accessing websites on the network," court papers said.
Federal authorities shut the site down and arrested its alleged mastermind, Ross William Ulbricht, on Tuesday while he was using a computer at a public library in San Francisco, where he was living. A criminal complaint said Ulbricht "has controlled and overseen all aspects of Silk Road."
The defendant announced in a website forum in 2012 that to avoid confusion he needed to change his Silk Road username, court papers said. He wrote, "drum roll please ... my new name is: Dread Pirate Roberts," an apparent reference to a swashbuckling character in "The Princess Bride," the 1987 comedy film based on a novel of the same name.
Ulbricht, 29, made an initial appearance in a San Francisco court on Wednesday, authorities said. The name of his attorney wasn't immediately available.
The court papers cite a LinkedIn profile that says Ulbricht graduated from the University of Texas with a physics degree and also attended graduate school in Pennsylvania. It says he has focused on "creating economic simulation" designed to "give people a firsthand experience of what it would be like to live in a world without the systematic use of force."
Along with drugs, the website offered various illegal services, including one vendor who offered to hack into Facebook, Twitter and other social networking accounts and another selling tutorials on how to hack into ATM machines. Under the "Forgeries" category, sellers advertised forged driver's licenses, passports, Social Security cards and other documents.
As of July, there were nearly 1 million registered users of the site from the United States, Germany, Russia, Australia and elsewhere around the globe, the court papers said. The site generated an estimated $1.2 billion since it started in 2011 and collected $80 million by charging 8 to 15 percent commission on each sale, they said.
Undercover agents in New York made more than 100 purchases of LSD, Ecstasy, heroin and other drugs offered on the site, the papers said.
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