The 37-year-old takes over after spending the last two seasons as an assistant with the Major League Soccer club.
Robinson replaces Martin Rennie, who was fired in October after Vancouver failed to make the playoffs.
As a player, the bruising midfielder spent three seasons with Toronto FC before joining the New York Red Bulls in 2010.
Robinson made 86 MLS appearances and was twice honored as Toronto's most valuable player.
He started his career in England and also played 52 times internationally for Wales.
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