The 37-year-old takes over after spending the last two seasons as an assistant with the Major League Soccer club.
Robinson replaces Martin Rennie, who was fired in October after Vancouver failed to make the playoffs.
As a player, the bruising midfielder spent three seasons with Toronto FC before joining the New York Red Bulls in 2010.
Robinson made 86 MLS appearances and was twice honored as Toronto's most valuable player.
He started his career in England and also played 52 times internationally for Wales.
More Sports Headlines
M's guaranteed to have losing record after 3-2 loss to Angels 4:00 p.m. Spieth wins Tour Championship to cap off big season 3:14 p.m. Kenseth wins second race of NASCAR's playoffs 2:39 p.m. Roethlisberger carted off with knee injury, Steelers edge Rams 12-6 2:04 p.m. Brady throws 400th career TD pass, Patriots beats Jaguars 51-17 2:04 p.m. Down 27-14, Lucks rallies Colts to 35-33 win over Titans 2:04 p.m. Bengals remain unbeaten, win 28-24 to drop Ravens to 0-3 2:04 p.m. Mallett throws for 228 yards and TD, Texans beat Bucs 19-9 2:04 p.m.
Our new comment system is not supported in IE 7. Please upgrade your browser here.