On July 1, 1944, delegates from 44 countries began meeting at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, where they agreed to establish the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
On this date:
In 1535, Sir Thomas More went on trial in England, charged with high treason for rejecting the Oath of Supremacy. (More was convicted, and executed.)
In 1863, the pivotal, three-day Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, resulting in a Union victory, began in Pennsylvania.
In 1867, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect.
In 1912, aviator Harriet Quimby, 37, was killed along with her passenger, William Willard, when they were thrown out of Quimby’s monoplane at the Third Annual Boston Aviation Meet.
In 1934, Hollywood began enforcing its Production Code subjecting motion pictures to censorship review.
In 1946, the United States exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.
In 1963, the U.S. Post Office inaugurated its five-digit ZIP codes.
In 1973, the Drug Enforcement Administration was established.
In 1974, the president of Argentina, Juan Peron, died; he was succeeded by his wife, Isabel Martinez de Peron.
In 1980, “O Canada” was proclaimed the national anthem of Canada.
In 1984, the Motion Picture Association of America established the “PG-13” rating.
In 1994, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat returned to Palestinian land after 27 years in exile as he drove from Egypt into Gaza.
Ten years ago: Legendary film and stage actor Marlon Brando died in Los Angeles at age 80. Saddam Hussein scoffed at charges of war crimes and mass killings, making a defiant first public appearance in an Iraqi court since being hunted down seven months earlier. Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Hong Kong to demand democratic rights from China. The Cassini spacecraft sent back photographs of Saturn’s shimmering rings.
Five years ago: President Barack Obama held an hour-long town hall forum on health care reform in Annandale, Virginia, where, in an emotional moment, he hugged cancer patient Debby Smith, a volunteer for Obama’s political operation, Organizing for America. Academy Award-winning actor Karl Malden, 97, died in Brentwood, California.
One year ago: President Barack Obama, during a visit to Tanzania, brushed aside sharp European criticism, suggesting that all nations spy on each other as the French and Germans expressed outrage over allegations of U.S. eavesdropping on European Union diplomats. President Obama joined his predecessor, former President George W. Bush, at a wreath-laying ceremony honoring victims of the 1998 embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya. Serena Williams joined a growing list of marquee names eliminated early at a wild and unpredictable Wimbledon, losing to Sabine Lisicki of Germany 6-2, 1-6, 6-4 in the fourth round. “Twister” game inventor Charles “Chuck” Foley, 82, died in St. Louis Park, Minnesota.
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